Month: April 2012

What can we learn in the Ocean surronding the country of Cape Verde?

Cape Verde in the Focus of Marine Research
Prime Minister of the Republic of Cape Verde receives Deutsche Bank-GEOMAR-Ocean Award 2012


April 27, 2012/Kiel, Mindelo. During the past years, the Cape Verde islands in the subtropi-cal Atlantic received more attention but not only with respect to tourism. Scientists from the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (GEOMAR), Germany discovered the archipelago off the coast of West Africa because of the their importance for many open questions with regard to marine research and used Cape Verde as an operational basis and starting point for expeditions with German research vessels. In recognition of the outstanding cooperation in research between the Republic of Cape Verde and GEOMAR the prime minister of the Republic of Cape Verde, His Excellency José Maria Neves receives the Deutsche Bank-GEOMAR Ocean Award 2012. Prime minster Neves will receive the award, endowed with 10,000 Euros, on April 27 in Kiel. The laudatory speech will be held by the former German Federal Minister for the Environment and Director of the UN Environmental Programme, Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. mult. Klaus Töpfer.

Some years ago, the Cape Verde archipelago was somehow a white spot on nautical charts of marine researchers. Since 2004 this has changed fundamentally. Scientific issues like oxygen minimum zones in the ocean, trace metal uptake, ocean fertilization as well as geological processes such as the hot-spot volcanism moved on the research agenda, the islands in the northeast Atlantic became a perfect logistical basis for marine research. Together with other partners in Germany and other countries, scientists of the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (GEOMAR) performed pioneering work and developed the Cape Verde islands to their research basis and home port in the north-eastern tropical Atlantic. Although the financial support of the Republic of Cape Verde could only be very limited, the warm and friendly welcome and support was very exceptional. In recognition of the outstanding working conditions the Deutsche-Bank-GEOMAR-Ocean Award 2012 will be presented to His Excellency José Maria Neves, prime minister of the Republic of Cape Verde.

The award will be presented by the former German Federal Minister for the Environment and Director of the UN Environmental Programme, Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. mult. Klaus Töpfer who is currently the director of the “Institute for Advanced Sustainabilty Studies” (IASS) in Potsdam, Germany. “For me environmental research and partnership with developing countries is an ideal combination”, Professor Töpfer states. In his laudatory speech he pointed in particular to the indicative cooperation between GEOMAR and the Republic of Cape Verde. Based on a stable democracy and a peaceful partnership, the responsible politicians of Cape Verde, in particular José Maria Neves succeeded to establish a fruitful cooperation of the native research institutions such as the Instituto Nacional de Desenvolvimento das Pescas (INDP) with GEOMAR in Kiel, Germany. In addition Töpfer pointed out that also the former ambassador of the Cape Verde Republic in Berlin, Jorge Tolentino Auraujo, has made significant contributions. “The people of Cape Verde have recognized the importance of the ocean research that takes place at their doorstep and their interaction with the marines scientists is outstanding”, Klaus Töpfer emphasised. Through the increasing research activities they profit in multiple ways, not only economically but also due to more education and research for the people of Cape Verde. In this context, Professor Töpfer also lauded explicitly the cooperation with pupils in Kiel and Mindelo as well as aspects of scientific education.

“The Deutsche Bank is keen to honour with this award the notable cooperation between GEOMAR and the Republic of Cape Verde”, Till Keulen, member of the management board of the Deutsche Bank and responsible for private banking in Germany, stated. Although in this case the prize money has a more symbolic character, it is very important for the Deutsche Bank to support the scientific cooperation with developing countries, Keulen continued.

“With the award we like to express our appreciation to the people of Cape Verde for their outstanding hospitality and support over many years” states Professor Peter Herzig, Director of GEOMAR. In 2009, Professor Herzig received the Presidential Medal of Merit, the highest award of the Republic of Cape Verde, from Pedro Verona Rodrigues Pires, who was by that time President of the Republic of Cape Verde.

“We would like to further strengthen our extraordinary relationship with the Republic of Cape Verde and we are currently undertaking strong efforts to further improve the infrastructure for marine research on the archipelago”, Herzig continues. “With support of the German Federal Ministry for Research and Education we hope to start this year with the construction of the ocean research centre in Mindelo on the island Sao Vicente that will enable us to perform on-site processing and analysis of samples as well as training of our Cape Verde partners. The port of Mindelo will become a preferred base of German research vessels that work in the north-eastern Atlantic. In future, topics like climate research, fisheries research, volcanism, and biodiversity will be central for our work in that area. Scientifically, the region around Cape Verde is of high interest and has a long-term perspective for our research. On behalf of the government of Cape Verde, prime minister José Maria Neves deserves our highest appreciation for this outstanding cooperation that we would like to express with the Deutsche Bank-GEOMAR Ocean Award 2012.”, Prof. Herzig resumes.


Prof. Dr. Peter Herzig, Phone: +49-431-600 2800, pherzig(at)

Dr. Andreas Villwock (Communication & Media), Phone: +49-431 600-2802, avillwock(at)

Catalina Island and Santa Luzia Island, Cape Verde: STEM Projects

Santa Luzia Island and Catalina: Conversations with Arthur Davis: Urban Planning Advisor

Project Side Bar Notes: Author and Bob Barboza had a few good phone conversations about creative ways to integrate the research about the Cabo Verde Tenth Island Enhanced STEM Program with some of the island off the coast of Southern California. Bob Barboza has been having conversations with USC Engineering instructors about Catalina Island. At the time of this conversation Author Davis did not realize that Santa Luzia, Cape Verde was a protected island by the country of Cape Verde. Our project is still a virtual project and we will not do anything to harm the island of Santa Luzia. Keep following these notes for more information or send your questions to Bob Barboza at

March 30, 2012

I decided to research the size of Santa Luzia after I wrote my preliminary ideas out for you and sent them.

I found out it is 35 km2

So I looked up 2 local islands that I know: Santa Catalina and Anacapa, both are part of the overall channel islands off the coast of Southern CA as you know.

Well, what do you know?! Catalina island is exactly the same size as Santa Luzia!!

And when I looked up the population of Avalon, the main village, it is just over 3000 people! Which is what I prescribed for one of the cities!

so Catalina is a very nice initial model for Santa Luzia as far as policies, visitation, and resource use.

Take care,


Part Two:

I forgot to talk a little about Anacapa Island:

It is basically half the size of Santa Luzia and it is all preserve. but there are a few buildings that include a small greenhouse and a large water storage facility. then there are 2 campsites that are very limited in size! this island is an amazing model for research and management!!! I can tell you much more about it. But this is probably a more advisable model and path for Santa Luzia but on a very slightly larger scale. they are also doing huge research and management for the fisheries and wildlife! very successful!!! and NO WIND TURBINES!!! but they have solar. And I will be giving them a new proposal for water catchment, which might be an invention.

Then there is Mykonos, one of the amazing Greek Islands! It is 41 km2, which is only 6 km2 larger than Santa Luzia.

I visited there as part of my trip to the ancient Egyptian sites and the Greek islands back in the early 80s.

at that time the population was only 5500 and it seemed like that should be the maximum! there were no cars allowed.

now you can see the population has nearly doubled!!!

and if you do an image search, you can see it has been almost inundated by development! a real eyesore! Even though I really love Greek style architecture and villages! which basically amounts to whitewashed and very compact but individualized and adjoining.

Back when I was there, the development was only centered at the very end of the peninsula and then there were scattered little farmhouses over most of the island. it was quite reasonable and the beautiful landscape was the dominant feature.

now the population is over 9000 and that’s far too much for reasonable community size! and the development is not planned or limited!

This cannot be allowed to happen on Santa Luzia…and really shouldn’t be allowed to happen anywhere! Including especially, the other islands of Cabo Verde! Which is exactly going to happen if we don’t start planning preserves and limiting development now!

hope this can be of use to you…


Initial proposals for the Santa Luzia “Tenth Island Project”, Cabo Verde Islands

by Arthur Davis, The New Human Project

hello bob…

I am gradually preparing documents for you that describe “the new human project” process for design, decision-making, management, production, and economics. of course you will not want to just jump right into using this process. I only intend for it to be an additional research and practice tool at this time.

In the mean time, I am happy to offer you some very general advice regarding your questions:

On the island of Santa Luzia:

1. First and foremost! Santa Luzia is a PRISTNE island! it must be treasured! I think we must contemplate the possibility of it becoming a natural preserve! there are many islands where this has been done. The Channel Islands national park is just one example.

On a preserve island it is still possible to have some base facilities and then offer the opportunity to have temporary habitation. the temporary habitation can be part of an international design process and monthly or annual competition! people and organizations from all over the world can submit proposals to design and construct temporary habitation, food production, energy production, waste treatment, and water provision facilities which would be established for a month, quarterly, or annually and then removed for the next winner.

This process allows Santa Luzia to become a world showcase on a continual basis! and it encourages a constant flow of new ideas that can be used all over the world!

a base would be set up as the foundation and that may be more permanent and that could also house the research facilities and habitation for researchers.

part of the overall habitation, which would mostly be the temporary facilities, would be for guests/tourists, including students of all ages, who would have to participate in an educational program and maybe even in the construction/dismantling process.

there would also be facilities for artists, musicians, and photographers with studios and guest units.

2. if the decision is made to develop permanent cities then most important will be to first establish the largest percentage of area as natural preserve with only very small areas allowed for permanent development.

a. research all aspects of island and create preserves for the most important areas of scenic and natural value

b. create areas with strict boundaries for urban development and habitation.

c. city size must be limited to 5-7000 people and no larger than 1 square mile of land area. this establishes a good size to maintain good community interaction and respect, and limiting the land area to 1sq mile allows for everyone to walk easily from any part of the city. New cities cannot have cars within them other than small electric carts or service vehicles. the general form and functions of the city are designed. when the city approaches its 7000 population limit preparations must be made to limit new population and/or begin developing a new city. the overall island plan will allow for a maximum number of 7000 population limit cities. when all urban space is developed on the island then the only new development allowed will be transformation type development, that which transforms old structure into new but maintains population or reduces it by moving it elsewhere. everyone will be aware of the population limits so they will have to plan on moving to other areas of the world when the limits are reached or not have babies.

this is an extremely important process that is rarely addressed in current societies until now when we are in a crisis. we have to manage population according to land and resources. Santa Luzia can be a great showcase for this process!

overall, humans must be able to have children and reproduce! what this means is that we must expand off the earth! and we were prepared to begin doing this way back in the 70s! But funding for mars exploration was completely cut off and invested in Vietnam and continued war! a disgrace!

Santa Luzia can become the “new planet” where we finally begin to develop land and resources RESPECTFULLY! leaving most of the “planet” or island or area, in its natural state and developing only a small portion for human use. and it can become an international showcase for this process!

d. Since water is a very scarce resource all over the world and especially on Santa Luzia, we must use waterless toilets! and people must be educated in low water use! we can integrate water catchment systems into every structure in urban areas. We must integrate water-recycling facilities into all structures and functions. we must create a water desalination plant. all habitation must be mostly self sufficient in water provision.

before constructing a water desalination plant we must first analyze how much water is really necessary so that the plant can be kept as small as possible.

e. Food production: we can make sure that the inhabitants and visitors on the island of Santa Luzia are self sufficient in food production.

there should be no land animal food and only a minimal amount of fish for food. animals are far too destructive to land. they require too much water and food themselves! killing animals for food is not nice or necessary! animal slaughter and processing is terribly toxic and unhealthy! animal food is not very healthy…only in protein. But some plant-based proteins are as good or better.

plant food can be grown in planned and limited land areas and greenhouses using minimal water. key plants to be used are: non- THC hemp, amaranth, quinoa, nopal, potato, einkorn wheat, and then a full range of fruits, nuts, and green leaf trees and plants. most food sources should come from sprouted seeds. hemp seeds, amaranth, quinoa, potato, and einkorn wheat all provide full, high quality protein…as do nuts. eating the sprout provides the highest available nutrition. you may research this on your own if you wish. coconut is a fruit, included above, but deserves special note for its water/milk and oil.

“industrial hemp” provides a vast range of other products. I do not use marijuana! and it is not the same.

greenhouses make food production extremely energy, water, labor, and waste efficient! and everyone in the community can participate in a “work is fun and fulfilling” way! 🙂

fish is healthy, especially if eaten raw, but again, the fish supply is being overused and must be repaired! and the processing of fish for food is subject to a vast array of health problems and energy use.

From a cultural point of view, current Cabo Verdean food might be centered on cooking and using some meat but this was mostly based on traditional Portuguese and African diets, which aren’t necessarily native at all! nor are they really the best for humans and the earth…or the animals! 🙂

f. energy production can be self sufficient through the use of solar. see example below:

This project is a great example of the process that can be used to develop energy on Santa Luzia!

wind generation should NOT be used! For the following reasons:

the wind does not always blow

large turbines are extremely expensive

large turbines cause significant scenic destruction! They destroy one of the most important and valuable resources of Santa Luzia!!!! DO NOT ALLOW THEM TO BE CONSTRUCTED NEAR SANTA LUZIA!! OR ANY TOPOGRAPHICALLY SIGNIFICANT ISLAND OR LAND! Sale is an example of a less important topographic island and yet, just its pristine flatness is special. SAVE LARGE WIND TURBINES FOR AREAS OF VERY LITTLE OR NO SCENIC VALUE! BUT MOST IMPORTANT IS THAT WE DONT NEED LARGE WIND TURBINES!!!! SOLAR IS A FAR BETTER SOLUTION! ESPECIALLY IN THE MID AND LOW LATITUDES!

large wind turbines allow the energy corporations to control large populations and force those people to pay money and expand the profits of the corporations! Very small, private wind generators and overall solar electric generation allow individuals and small communities to be self-sufficient and not be dependent on a large corporation for their energy needs!

Santa Luzia might be able to develop its own photovoltaic cell and battery production facility if they can be done ecologically. But otherwise, the future inhabitants of Santa Luzia could be allowed to help participate in off-island photovoltaic cell and battery production to offset the cost and to participate in their self-sufficiency.

Once photovoltaic cells are installed, they have a minimum life of 20-30 years.

As noted in the above link and article, energy needs should be extremely low! especially if there is a focus on raw, vegetarian food consumption! which is the healthiest and most nutritious! So, aside from a desalination plant and maybe some manufacturing, energy needs for Santa Luzia can be very efficient and low!

We can supplement solar energy with small individual scale wind generators and hydrogen power.

g. Transportation. all transportation within the villages and cities must be pedestrian or bicycle! This is healthy, low energy, and allows people to be “in-touch” with each other! it encourages community interaction and healthy fitness! there can be small electric vehicles if necessary.

Outside the city, transportation can occur through rental electric cars…again, very small and lightweight. range for electric cars can now be around 250 miles! and we can use a system of battery changing at stations if necessary. all car batteries can be recharged using solar! very easily!

We can create both electric monorail and electric or hydrogen powered bus transit as well.

Those are my initial ideas and recommendations.

Overall I would recommend:

1. Santa Luzia becomes a nature preserve island.

2. 2 permanent, small cities limited in population to 3000 people for 1 and 1000 people for the other, one at 2 different ends of the island.

3. Up to 10 very small temporary outpost areas for temporary habitation that get dismantled and rebuilt on a quarterly basis. these can even just be campgrounds. Maybe I would adjust this down much further after research.

4. Self sufficient in water, food, and energy. Food will be raw vegetarian based and become a new native cultural food standard for all Cabo Verde. fruit trees including coconut palms and nut trees, will be grown in small areas. limited land-based agriculture will be established in areas near the cities. most food will be grown in greenhouses. energy will be solar and hydrogen based supplemented with some small scale, non-visually obtrusive generators.

5. Pedestrian oriented…all over the island for improved health and fitness and community interaction…and low energy consumption!

I hope this can be of value to you…

Thank you,

Arthur Davis, Urban Planner
Palm Spring, California

Kids Talk Radio Backpack Robotic’s Program

A humanoid robot or an anthropomorphic robot is a robot with its overall appearance, based on that of the human body, allowing interaction with made-for-human tools or environments. In general humanoid robots have a torso with a head, two arms and two legs, although some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up. Some humanoid robots may also have a ‘face’, with ‘eyes’ and ‘mouth’. Androids are humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble a human.

Humanoid robotsare used as a research tool in several scientific areas.

Researchers need to understand the human body structure and behavior (biomechanics) to build and study humanoid robots. On the other side, the attempt to simulate the human body leads to a better understanding of it.
Human cognition is a field of study which is focused on how humans learn from sensory information in order to acquire perceptual and motor skills. This knowledge is used to develop computational models of human behavior and it has been improving over time.
It has been suggested that very advanced robotics will facilitate the enhancement of ordinary humans. Although the initial aim of humanoid research was to build better orthosis and prosthesis for human beings, knowledge has been transferred between both disciplines. A few examples are: powered leg prosthesis for neuromuscularly impaired, ankle-foot orthosis, biological realistic leg prosthesis and forearm prosthesis.

Besides the research, humanoid robots are being developed to perform human tasks like personal assistance, where they should be able to assist the sick and elderly, and dirty or dangerous jobs. Regular jobs like being a receptionist or a worker of an automotive manufacturing line are also suitable for humanoids. In essence, since they can use tools and operate equipment and vehicles designed for the human form, humanoids could theoretically perform any task a human being can, so long as they have the proper software. However, the complexity of doing so is deceptively great.
They are becoming increasingly popular for providing entertainment too. For example, Ursula, a female robot, sings, dances,and speaks to her audiences at Universal Studios. Several Disney attractions employ the use of animatrons, robots that look, move, and speak much like human beings, in some of their theme park shows. These animatrons look so realistic that it can be hard to decipher from a distance whether or not they are actually human. Although they have a realistic look, they have no cognition or physical autonomy. Various humanoid robots and their possible applications in daily life are featured in an independent documentary film called Plug & Pray, which was released in 2010.[3]

Humanoid robots, especially with artificial intelligence algorithms, could be useful for future dangerous and/or distant space exploration missions, without having the need to turn back around again and return to Earth once the mission is completed. We are looking at plans to have robots work on our uninhabited island of Santa Luzia. This is just a simulation at this point. What are ways the a robot like NAO could help us on our island?

What are Sensors?
A sensor is a device that measures some attribute of the world. Being one of the three primitives of robotics (besides planning and control), sensing plays an important role in robotic paradigms.
Sensors can be classified according to the physical process with which they work or according to the type of measurement information that they give as output. In this case, the second approach was used.
Proprioceptive Sensors
Proprioceptive sensors sense the position, the orientation and the speed of the humanoid’s body and joints.

In human beings inner ears are used to maintain balance and orientation. Humanoid robots use accelerometers to measure the acceleration, from which velocity can be calculated by integration; tilt sensors to measure inclination; force sensors placed in robot’s hands and feet to measure contact force with environment; position sensors, that indicate the actual position of the robot (from which the velocity can be calculated by derivation) or even speed sensors.
Exteroceptive Sensors
Arrays of tactels can be used to provide data on what has been touched. The Shadow Hand uses an array of 34 tactels arranged beneath its polyurethane skin on each finger tip.[4] Tactile sensors also provide information about forces and torques transferred between the robot and other objects.

Vision refers to processing data from any modality which uses the electromagnetic spectrum to produce an image. In humanoid robots it is used to recognize objects and determine their properties. Vision sensors work most similarly to the eyes of human beings. Most humanoid robots use CCD cameras as vision sensors.
Sound sensors allow humanoid robots to hear speech and environmental sounds, and perform as the ears of the human being. Microphones are usually used for this task.
What are Actuators?
Actuators are the motors responsible for motion in the robot.
Humanoid robots are constructed in such a way that they mimic the human body, so they use actuators that perform like muscles and joints, though with a different structure. To achieve the same effect as human motion, humanoid robots use mainly rotary actuators. They can be either electric, pneumatic, hydraulic, piezoelectric or ultrasonic.
Hydraulic and electric actuators have a very rigid behavior and can only be made to act in a compliant manner through the use of relatively complex feedback control strategies . While electric coreless motor actuators are better suited for high speed and low load applications, hydraulic ones operate well at low speed and high load applications.

Piezoelectric actuators generate a small movement with a high force capability when voltage is applied. They can be used for ultra-precise positioning and for generating and handling high forces or pressures in static or dynamic situations.
Ultrasonic actuators are designed to produce movements in a micrometer order at ultrasonic frequencies(over 20 kHz). They are useful for controlling vibration, positioning applications and quick switching.

Pneumatic actuators operate on the basis of gas compressibility. As they are inflated, they expand along the axis, and as they deflate, they contract. If one end is fixed, the other will move in a linear trajectory. These actuators are intended for low speed and low/medium load applications. Between pneumatic actuators there are: cylinders, bellows, pneumatic engines, pneumatic stepper motors and pneumatic artificial muscles.
Planning and Control
In planning and control, the essential difference between humanoids and other kinds of robots (like industrial ones) is that the movement of the robot has to be human-like, using legged locomotion, especially biped gait. The ideal planning for humanoid movements during normal walking should result in minimum energy consumption, like it does in the human body. For this reason, studies on dynamics and control of these kinds of structures become more and more important.

To maintain dynamic balance during the walk, a robot needs information about contact force and its current and desired motion. The solution to this problem relies on a major concept, the Zero Moment Point (ZMP).

Another characteristic of humanoid robots is that they move, gather information (using sensors) on the “real world” and interact with it. They don’t stay still like factory manipulators and other robots that work in highly structured environments. To allow humanoids to move in complex environments, planning and control must focus on self-collision detection, path planning and obstacle avoidance.

Humanoids don’t yet have some features of the human body. They include structures with variable flexibility, which provide safety (to the robot itself and to the people), and redundancy of movements, i.e. more degrees of freedom and therefore wide task availability. Although these characteristics are desirable to humanoid robots, they will bring more complexity and new problems to planning and control.

Chemistry Intern Jobs on Santa Luzia Island

Cabo Verde Tenth Island Project Job Lists for Student Backpack Scientists

Chemistry: Intern Jobs

The teachers, scientists, and community advisors are looking for students that are willing to write stories, conduct research, create audio and video podcasts, short videos, create illustration, have audio conversations, write and present papers, create Power Point presentations, create paintings, drawings and illustrations, conduct research, conduct interviews, conduct investigative research, use augmented reality software, virtual reality software, gamming software, virtual reality software and any form of creative expression to assist our STEM team.

Goal: We are using the uninhabited island of Santa Luzia, Cape Verde as our virtual science lab. We need to build a city, science lab, housing units, harbors, a science sailing ship, farms and gardens to grow food, energy plants, wind farms, and anything necessary for our teams to work and live on Santa Luzia, Cape Verde.

We want to hear your creative ideas? What do we need to do to create the worlds most perfect science center on an uninhabited island?

The following STEM projects and job are listed in the hopes that they will spark your creativity.


Chemistry Department Conversations for Kids Talk Radio Science and the Cabo Verde Tenth Island Project.

• Why study chemistry?
• How can chemistry improve health care?
• How can chemistry help with the conservation of natural resources on the Cabo Verde Islands?
• What are some of the pharmaceutical chemicals that we need to have in our emergency medial kits on the island of Santa Luzia, Cape Verde?
• How can we increase food production through the use of fertilizers and pesticides?
• What should we do about the use of plastic

s on the Tenth Island Project?
• What are some of the chemicals that will harm our health on the island of Santa Luzia?
• Talk to our group about creating light. What can we learn from the firefly?
• Explain how solar cells work and how we can use them on the Cabo Verde Tenth Island Project.
• What is a chemist and what do they do?
• Explain how a chemist would use the scientific method?
• How does a gasoline pump deal with mixing chemicals?
• How can we use LED lighting on the Cabo Verde Tenth Island Project?
• Help our students to able to distinguish among elements, compounds and mixtures?
• Explain in a podcast how we co

uld use dimensional analysis in calculations.
• What can you tell our STEM teams about organic chemistry?
• Podcast needed: What is the systemic way that substances are named? Explain nomenclature and how this nomenclature is applied to inorganic chemistry?
• How does a chemist make a match to light a candle? What do we need to do to make a book of matches? Create a podcast that helps to explain chemical changes.
• What is the chemistry involved in inflating and automobile air bag?
• How does a propane touch work?
• Create a podcasts that talks about how a glucose monitor works.
• How do we use chemistry to create light? How can sodium chloride solution conduct electricity? How can we create light at night on the island of Santa Luzia, Cape Verde?
• Create a podcast that talks about co

mmon household items that are acids and bases. Hints: vinegar, lemon juice, ammonia and baking soda.
• How can we avoid rust on Santa Luzia Island?
• When can drinking too much water kill you? Water is a big problem on the island of Santa Luzia. Are there any examples of people who have died from drinking too much water?
• Can we grow sugar cane on the island of Santa Luzia? Can we turn the sugarcane in fuel? What do we have to do to create cane-based ethanol?
• How can our chemists help our STEM team to make our own batteries?
• How can we use solar energy to carry out photosynthesis?
• How can we stop our water from evaporating on Santa Luzia Island?
• Can we create buoyant gasses

to build our own hot airships to travel from one island to the next in Cape Verde?
• Can we use chemistry to regulate our body temperature while living on the island of Santa Luzia?
• Can we grow corn on Santa Luzia? Can we use that corn that we grow as a source of fuel and bioethanol?
• How can we take control of atoms? We want to do more with neon atoms to get higher energy by electricity? What can you add to this conversation? Are we headed in the right direction?
• Cape Verde is where hurricanes are born. We want to know about (GASES). Hurricane formation is still not completely understood. Our team needs a deeper understand about how hurricanes are formed. Create a hurricane information podcast.
• Who is willing to help our group to understand atmospheric pressure and the barometer?

Contact your team leader for the rest of this unit on chemistry.

Wanted: Engineers for our Cabo Verde Tenth Island Project Intern Program

Cabo Verde Tenth Island Project Job Lists for Student Backpack Scientists

Engineering:  Intern Jobs


  • Chemical Engineering
  • Civil Engineering
  • Construction Engineering
  • Computer Engineering
  • Computer Science
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Aerospace Engineering


The teachers, scientists, and community advisors are looking for students that are willing to write stories, conduct research, create audio and video podcasts, short videos, create illustration, have audio conversations, write and present papers, create Power Point presentations, create paintings, drawings and illustrations, conduct research, conduct interviews, conduct investigative research, use augmented reality software, virtual reality software, gamming software, virtual reality software and any form of creative expression to assist our STEM team.   


Goal:  We are using the uninhabited island of Santa Luzia, Cape Verde as our virtual science lab.  We need to build a city, science lab, housing units, harbors, a science sailing ship, farms and gardens to grow food, energy plants, wind farms, and anything necessary for our teams to work and live on Santa Luzia, Cape Verde.


We want to hear your creative ideas?  What do we need to do to create the worlds most perfect science center on an uninhabited island?


The following STEM projects and job are listed in the hopes that they will spark your creativity.



Engineering Department Conversations for Kids Talk Radio Science


  • What is an engineering design algorithm?
  • What makes engineers different from scientists?
  • Create a podcast pointing out the difference between digital and analog.
  • What can you tell us about the mathematics and engineering that gave birth to the digital age?
  • Talk about how the transistor replaced the vacuum tube?
  • What are bits and why are they so important?
  • Start a conversation about Moore’s Law and the Future Growth of Technology.
  • Create a podcast explain the mathematics of Moore’s law.
  • Help our audience to understand the units of modern technology. (“mega” “goga” “ peta” and “femto”.
  • How has technology changed the music industry?
  • How is music made from sines and cosines?
  • Talk to our audience about music, sounds and signals.
  • Talk about the speed of sound in an audio podcast.
  • What can you tell us about microphones?
  • How can we use mathematics to create a signal?
  • Teach our class about pitch, frequency and periodic signals
  • Help our audience to be able to find the frequency of a periodic signal from its plot.
  • How can we make music from sines and cosines?
  • How do engineers use MIDI to specify information?
  • How do we make music with more than one note at a time?
  • Explain how engineers create digital images.
  • What is the basic idea behind digital imaging?
  • What is computer animation?
  • What can you tell our group about robot vision and navigation control?
  • What can you tell us about medical imaging systems?
  • What are the components of digital imaging system?
  • How many bits are in a pixel and how many pixels are in an image?
  • When talking about digital images explain sampling and quantization of color images.
  • What can you tell us about computer graphics and special effects used in movies?
  • What is morphing and how does it work?
  • Talk about how engineers understand images from robot eyes.
  • How can engineers design simple vision systems?
  • How would an engineer design and object counter?
  • How would an engineer design a motion detector?
  • How can our student backpack engineers design a blue-screen chromakey system?
  • What is ASCII Code?
  • What is quantization?
  • What are the four classes of coding methods? (formatting, compression, error correction, and encryption)
  • How would an engineer design a simple formatting codebook?
  • How do engineers design formatting codes for the time on a digital clocks.
  • How would you design formatting codes for the date of a digital clock?
  • Why do we need compression?
  • What can you tell us about how engineers use coding information for storage and secrecy?
  • What is a computer network?
  • What is the origin of the Internet?
  • How was the Internet built?
  • How are engineer’s society’s problem solvers?
  • How are engineering and science different?
  • What do engineers do?
  • What science and math do you need to know to become an engineer?
  • What can you teach our group about robotics?
  • What can you teach our group about C++ programming?
  • What can you teach our group about the Microsoft Robotics software?
  • What have you do with robots in the past?
  • What are you planning do do with robots in the future?

Calculus: For Student Backpack Scientists

Kids Talk Radio Engineering Conversations About Precalculus and Calculus

Calculus is the most feared subject in any curriculum. Why are so many students afraid of calculus?

What is calculus?
Calculus (Latin, calculus, a small stone used for counting) is a branch of mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus, which are related by the fundamental theorem of calculus. Calculus is the study of change,[1] in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. A course in calculus is a gateway to other, more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits, broadly called mathematical analysis. Calculus has widespread applications in science, economics, and engineering and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient.
Historically, calculus was called “the calculus of infinitesimals”, or “infinitesimal calculus”. More generally, calculus (plural calculi) refers to any method or system of calculation guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus, variational calculus, lambda calculus, pi calculus, and join calculus.
While some of the ideas of calculus had been developed earlier in Egypt, Greece, China, India, Iraq, Persia, and Japan, the modern use of calculus began in Europe, during the 17th century, when Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz built on the work of earlier mathematicians to introduce its basic principles. The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion and area underneath curves.
Applications of differential calculus include computations involving velocity and acceleration, the slope of a curve, and optimization. Applications of integral calculus include computations involving area, volume, arc length, center of mass, work, and pressure. More advanced applications include power series and Fourier series.
Calculus is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space, time, and motion. For centuries, mathematicians and philosophers wrestled with paradoxes involving division by zero or sums of infinitely many numbers. These questions arise in the study of motion and area. The ancient Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea gave several famous examples of such paradoxes. Calculus provides tools, especially the limit and the infinite series, which resolve the paradoxes.
Calculus Applications

The logarithmic spiral of the Nautilus shell is a classical image used to depict the growth and change related to calculus
Calculus is used in every branch of the physical sciences, actuarial science, computer science, statistics, engineering, economics, business, medicine, demography, and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematically modeled and an optimal solution is desired. It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa, and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other.
Physics makes particular use of calculus; all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are interrelated through calculus. The mass of an object of known density, the moment of inertia of objects, as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton’s second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term “rate of change” which refers to the derivative saying The rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. Commonly expressed today as Force = Mass × acceleration, it involves differential calculus because acceleration is the time derivative of velocity or second time derivative of trajectory or spatial position. Starting from knowing how an object is accelerating, we use calculus to derive its path.
Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism and Einstein’s theory of general relativity are also expressed in the language of differential calculus. Chemistry also uses calculus in determining reaction rates and radioactive decay. In biology, population dynamics starts with reproduction and death rates to model population changes.
Calculus can be used in conjunction with other mathematical disciplines. For example, it can be used with linear algebra to find the “best fit” linear approximation for a set of points in a domain. Or it can be used in probability theory to determine the probability of a continuous random variable from an assumed density function. In analytic geometry, the study of graphs of functions, calculus is used to find high points and low points (maxima and minima), slope, concavity and inflection points.
Green’s Theorem, which gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C, is applied in an instrument known as a planimeter which is used to calculate the area of a flat surface on a drawing. For example, it can be used to calculate the amount of area taken up by an irregularly shaped flower bed or swimming pool when designing the layout of a piece of property.
Discrete Green’s Theorem, which gives the relationship between a double integral of a function around a simple closed rectangular curve C and a linear combination of the antiderivative’s values at corner points along the edge of the curve, allows fast calculation of sums of values in rectangular domains. For example, it can be used to efficiently calculate sums of rectangular domains in images, in order to rapidly extract features and detect object – see also the summed area table algorithm.
In the realm of medicine, calculus can be used to find the optimal branching angle of a blood vessel so as to maximize flow. From the decay laws for a particular drug’s elimination from the body, it’s used to derive dosing laws. In nuclear medicine, it’s used to build models of radiation transport in targeted tumor therapies.
In economics, calculus allows for the determination of maximal profit by providing a way to easily calculate both marginal cost and marginal revenue.
Calculus is also used to find approximate solutions to equations; in practice it’s the standard way to solve differential equations and do root finding in most applications. Examples are methods such as Newton’s method, fixed point iteration, and linear approximation. For instance, spacecraft use a variation of the Euler method to approximate curved courses within zero gravity environments.

My job is to get students to stop fearing calculus and to start using it to solve problems in the real world. The real world for us is our uninhabited island of Santa Luzia, Cape Verde. It is a fact that you cannot survive in any college engineering program without calculus at your fingertips. Some departments require one calculus course and others can require up to four calculus classes.

Some comments about our Precalculus textbook:

If your team is looking for projects for the Cabo Verde Tenth Island Project consider items from the list below.

Our high school students are reading PRECALCULUS: Enhanced with Graphing Utilities, 5e by Michael Sullivan (Chicago State University) & Michael Sullivan, III. (Joliet Junior College) This book has a list of real world applications that we are using on the Cabo Verde Tenth Island Project. Some of the applications addressed below would make for interesting Kids Talk Radio STEM conversations with great examples of using calculus in the world of work. All of the following topics are being integrated into the Cabo Verde Tenth Island Project:

• Agriculture
• Air travel
• Architecture
• Area Geometry
• Aviation
• Biology
• Business
• Carpentry
• Chemistry
• Combinatorics
• Communication
• Design
• Distance
• Economics
• Electronics
• Finance
• Food and nutrition
• Games
• Geography
• Geology
• Geometry
• Government
• Health & Medicine (Jr. Medical School Projects)
• Investments
• Navigation
• Oceanography
• Physics
• Seismology
• Surveying
• Temperature
• Transportation
• Weather

We are looking for students and adults that have creative ways to teach calculus to our group of international student backpack scientists.

Please help us to continue these conversations about calculus.

Our students speak C++ at our STEM Labs

Super School University has added C++ to its 2012-2015 Curriculum.
“We wanted to go beyond the Common Core Standards. Our students are in 17 th. place internationally in science. We are involved in international project based-learning and our students have to be innovators. When the question is asked, What is the best language to support our new robotic’s programs? We feel the correct answer for right now is C++.” Said, Bob Barboza, Founder Super School University.
What is C++?
C++ (pronounced “cee plus plus”) is a statically typed, free-form, multi-paradigm, compiled, general-purpose programming language. It is regarded as an intermediate-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features.[3] It was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs as an enhancement to the C language. Originally named C with Classes, the language was renamed C++ in 1983,[4] as a pun involving the increment operator.
C++ is one of the most popular programming languages[5][6] with application domains including systems software, application software, device drivers, embedded software, high-performance server and client applications, and entertainment software such as video games.[7] Several groups provide both free and proprietary C++ compiler software, including the GNU Project, Microsoft, Intel and Embarcadero Technologies. C++ has greatly influenced many other popular programming languages, most notably C#[2] and Java.
C++ is also used for hardware design, where the design is initially described in C++, then analyzed, architecturally constrained, and scheduled to create a register-transfer level hardware description language via high-level synthesis.[8]
C++ is now being used at Super School University for the Cabo Verde International Tenth Island Project. We are working with a new line of robots and C++ is helping our teams to communicate with the robots. Our uninhabited island of Santa Luzia Cape Verde is a harsh environment. Students in our virtual labs are making plans for robots to conduct experiments in extreme heat. We are looking for additional teachers and students that have a command of C++.

Microsoft Visual C++ (often abbreviated as MSVC or VC++) is a commercial, integrated development environment (IDE) product from Microsoft for the C, C++, and C++/CLI programming languages. It has tools for developing and debugging C++ code, especially code written for the Microsoft Windows API, the DirectX API, and the Microsoft .NET Framework. This program is fully supported with frequent upgrades. It has a long standing success record and it is the right tool for the jobs associated with the Cabo Verde Tenth Island Project. It is very important that we work with programs that are highly supported.

We welcome your comments.